REINVENTING INDEPENDENT HILL COUNTRY

 

“Truth and Honesty won the enemy”, said Gandhiji in his time of Indian Freedom struggle, through Non-Violence movement experimented by himself.

 

PS Haokip, the supreme commander of the Kuki National Organisation (KNO), is a peace lover. He hails from Nagaland and was once a Christian spiritual leader. In 1993, he reformed traditional Kuki governance, i.e. Kuki Inpi, the federal form of government and by empowering Kuki Chiefs to secure ownership of Kuki ancestral lands. Before the outbreak of Kuki Genocide from 1990-1996 committed by Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland(Isak&Muivah) in Kuki ancestral lands in North-east India, he was a renowned peacemaker in Kuki community. Casualties of the genocide include over 900 killed innocent men, women and children, especially of the male gender; over 360 villages uprooted and more than 100,000 souls rendered refugees. During this difficult period, the Kukis was completely helpless. But the government of India and the state government at that time was a silent spectator. Instead of shielding innocent Kukis, the Government signed a ‘ceasefire’with NSCN (IM) in 1997.

In July 4, 1987, the Kuki Leaders had petitioned a memorandum to the Chief Minister of Manipur, citing the indiscriminate and unlawful killings of Kuki leaders selectively by the hostile Nagas. The memorandum highlighted secessionists Nagas terrorising ‘Kukis and murdering about 36 important leaders from 1950s to 1980s and uprooting more than 64 Kuki villages from the then Kuki dominated districts of Tamenglong, Ukhrul and Sadar Hills, Senapati and Tengnoupal’ (Haokip, PS Zalen-gam: The Kuki Nation, (19? pp 555-563). The killings were aimed to disperse Kukis from their ancestral lands and convert them into Naga. The unwarranted aggression destroyed the age-old relationship between Nagas and Kukis in Manipur state.

The Kuki National Organisation was formed in the year 1988 at Molnoi village located in the border areas of India and Myanmar. The objectives of KNO includes a safeguarding Kuki territory, for which the forefathers fought the British colonialists in the Kuki Rising 1917-1919.

PS Haokip initially did not plan to join any insurgency organisation.Factional clash amongst various Kuki militant groups was rampant. In 1994, appeals from concerned quarters of the community convinced him to join KNO as president and supreme commander.

When asked about KNO stance on NSCN (IM) and GOI ‘Peace Accord’ signed on 3 August 2015, which contain ‘Sharing of Sovereignty’, ‘Unique Naga History’ and that the idea of Nagalim would include the whole of Chandel district, Senapati district, Ukhrul district, and Tamenglong districts of Manipur, he replied,‘political settlement should include all stakeholders, especially Kukis. Manasseh-Kuki group of tribes own Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, Sadar Hills and Tamenglong. Only some portions of Ukhrul inhabited by genuine Tangkhuls, not Kukis forcibly converted to Tangkhul, can be included in the Peace Accord framework offered to them by the central Government. In Nagaland state, out of 11 districts five of them belongs to Manasseh-Kuki groups of tribe: Mon district, Longleng district, and Tuensang district, Kiphire district, and Paren district are lands of Konyak, Phom, and Khimnungan, Yimchunger, and Zeliangrong, who are the Manasseh people. Dr GA Grierson’s description of Kuki Country in Linguistic Survey of India, Vol III, Part III (1904) should not be ignored by the Government of India,’ he said toHILLS TODAY.

Chavang Kut, a post harvest festival of the Kukis was celebrated with the theme ‘Celebration of Brotherhood’ for three consecutive days (30, 31 Oct to 1 Nov 2015), playing host to forty-three tribes who are descendants of Manasseh. The names of the forty-three, plus two additional tribes are inscribed on stone standing sixteen feet tall at Peace Ground, Tuibuong, Churachandpur district. Morethan 150,000 people attended the event. Traditional dances were performed by various cultural troupes, and local artistes regaled the crowd with numerous songs.

Jacob bestowed his blessings upon his two grandsons Ephraim and Manasseh, sons of Joseph, crisscrossing his hands and laid the right hand on the head of Ephraim and the left hand on Manasseh, the younger brother. It meant Ephraim would become up as a big nation and it was so; and the elder son Manasseh, on whom the left hand was laid, would become a nation in the future. At the ‘Celebration of Brotherhood’ on 31 Oct, Rev. Chomlhun said God also revealed this to him.

The lost tribes of Manasseh, including Kukis are widely spread across South-East Asia, covering from South China Sea to the west up to the Bay of Bengal. The tribes are Kuki, Mizo, Karbi, Zeliangrong, Kachari, Bodo, Konyak, Singpho, Heimi, Phom, Yimchunger, Kiamnungan, Tagin, Mishing, Miji, Adi, Nocte, Wancho, Apatani, Bugun, Kachin, Chin, Somra Kuki, Para, Makuri, Lainau, Noaw, Upper Chindwin Shan, Karen, Mon, Palaung, Chakmas and Kukis of Chittagong Hill Tract, Kukis of Tripura, Reang/Bru, Misi, Padam, Sherdukpen, Tani, Khamba, Khamti, Lishpa, Memba, Milang, Mishmi, Monpa, Nyishi, Sangkhen, Tangsa, Zekhring, and the Mishing group in Tibet Digaro (Taying) and Miju. The Mishing in Assam, Miri (Mishing), Abor and Dafla (Nyising) are also descendants of Manasseh, including Tai Kheun/ Tai Shan/Shan, the sub-tribe called Tai Ahom/Ahom (Tea Tribe) in Assam. The Tai Ahom people live in India’s northeast state of Assam, where they ruled for almost 600 years (1228-1826).

The current Chief Minister of Assam, Shri Tarun Gogoi (Ahom), the Chief Minister of Nagaland; Shri TR Zeliang,Minister of State for Home, Shri Kiran Rijiju, and Shri Tapir Gao, BJP worker, who are from Miji and Adi tribes of Arunachal Pradesh, are also part of the Manasseh group.

 

Other Manasseh tribes include  (Source: Wikipedia/Internet/website),

The Manasseh groups are also in many provinces of Upper Regions of Northern Thailand. They are Tai/Dai, Tai Dam, Tai Dehong/Neua, Tai Kheun, Tai Lanna, Tai Lue, Tai Nung, Tai Yai (Shan), and Tai Zhuang (Zahong), Hmong tribes, Akha and Hani, Tai Lue, the Sub-Tribes/family/groups of TAI/DAI known as TAI LUE. The specific demographics are as follows:

  1. Chiang Rai Province: In this province Tai Lue people are settled in three districts: Mae Sai District, Chiang Khong District, and Chiang Saen District. (A portion of them fled to Chiang Rung at the outbreak of the Ayuthian-Burma War).
  2. Chiangmai Province: the two Tai Lue districts in chiangmai are Samoeng and Doi Saket.
  3. Nan Province: There are four districts occupied by Tai Lue in this province: Chiang Klang district, Tha Wang Pha district, Pua District, and Thung Chang district. (A great number of them fled from the Saiyaburi and Sipsongpanna regions.)
  4. Phayao Province: Chiang Muan and Chiang Kham are the two Tai Lue districts in Phayao province of Thailand.
  5. Lampang Province: Mueang Lamphun district and Mae Tha district.

 

Tai Dam Tribes:

The Tai Dam, Tai Dum or Black Tai (Thai) are an ethnic group of Vietnam, Laos, China, and Thailand. Tai Dam speakers in China are classified as part of the Dai nationality along with almost all the other Tai peoples. But in Vietnam, they are given their own nationality (with the White Tai) where they are classified (confusingly for English speakers) as the Thái nationality (Tai people).

The Tai Dam are known as “the people without a country.” In the 1950s during the Vietnam-French War, many of the Tai Dam moved from Vietnam to Laos. In Laos, they worked as farmers, soldiers, and service workers. The Tai Dam language became infused with Lao. In the 1970s, Laos was undergoing a civil war and many of the Tai Dam became refugees and escaped into Thailand. After thousands of years of political oppression, the Tai Dam vowed they would stay together as a group.

1.In Vietnam

In Vietnam, Tai Dam population is about 813,000. The Black Tai live along the banks of the Red and Black Rivers in northern Vietnam. Some moved south and are now settled mainly in Tung Nghia, Tho Thanh, and Pleiku. Their tonal language, Tai Dem, belongs to a larger cultural-linguistic grouping of people known as the Tai. The Tai include the Laotians, the Shans, and others. The Black Tai are named for the color of the women’s clothing. Their language is not clearly understood by the White Tai, and each group has a distinct writing system. From China, the Tai migrated south due to unending pressure by the Chinese. In 1895, the French ruled Vietnam in what became a joint rule with Japan for a short period after 1941. Communist rebels emerged and military regimes formed, leading to severe bloodshed until the Communist Republic of North Vietnam was pushed south in 1975. The Black Tai have strong ethnic pride and are part of the Thai official nationality in Vietnam.

Laos

In Laos, they are numbering 78,000 in population. The Black Tai of Laos lives in the narrow upland valleys of Khammouan Province. Their tonal language, Tai Dem, belongs to a larger cultural-linguistic grouping of people known as the Tai. The Tai include the Laotians, the Shans, and others. The Black Tai, together with the White Tai, were named for the color of their women’s blouses.

Due to pressure from the Chinese, the Tai migrated south and made their homes along the Red and Black Rivers and in the landlocked country of Laos. Others are located in Thailand and Vietnam. After years of invasions, a series of land wars, and possession by the French, Laos has finally entered into good relations with all of its neighbors as well as Russia and the United States. The Black Tai have been able to preserve their traditional way of life almost exactly as it was before the expansion of the Tai-speaking peoples into Indo-china.

Tai Dam Tribes

In China, Tai Dam population is 44,000. The Tai Dam (Black Tai) are so named because of the predominant color of their traditional clothing, and also because they live along the banks of the Black River. In China, where they have been included in the official Dai nationality, the Tai Dam are also known as the Jinping Tai after the country they inhabit. The Tai Dam use an ancient Indic script, which seems to have been the forerunner of the current script used by the Thai people in Thailand. Tai Dam has some intelligibility with Tai Kao.

The Tai Dam people are believed to have originated in southern China but gradually migrated into Southeast Asia due to oppression by the Chinese. The Tai Dam even had their own government in North Vietnam for a short time in the 1950s. The spread of smallpox, cholera, tuberculosis, and malaria was rampant among the Tai Dam in the past, decimating entire communities.

 

It is common for all the elders of a Tai Dam family to be equally responsible for raising children. Each village is under the control of a Chao Muong, or prince.

Tai Dehong/Neua Tribe:

Tai Nüa  (also called Tai Nɯa, Dehong Dai, or Chinese Shan; which means “upper Tai” or “northern Tai”, Déhóng) is one of the languages spoken by the Dai people in China, especially in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in the southwest of Yunnan province. It is closely related to the other Tai languages. Speakers of this language across the border in Myanmar are known as Shan. It should not be confused with Tai Lü (Xishuangbanna Dai). There are also Tai Nüa speakers in Thailand.

Tai Kheun Tribe:

The Tai Kheun/Shan are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State of Burma (Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Laos and Thailand. Though no reliable census has been taken in Burma since 1935, the Shan are estimated to number between 4-6 million.

The capital of Shan State is Taunggyi, a fifth largest city in Myanmar about 390,000 people. Other major cities include Thibaw (Hsipaw), Lashio, Kengtung and Tachileik. This group lives north of the Shweli River, mostly in the area of Dehong, China.

Other Tai Shan groups:

There are various ethnic groups designated as Tai throughout Shan State and Kachin State. Some of these groups, in fact, speak Tibeto-Burman and Mon-Khmer languages, although they are assimilated into Shan society.

  • Tai Ahom: The Tai Ahom people live in India’s northeastern state of Assam where tradition says that they ruled for almost 600 years (1228-1826).
  • Tai Mao, living in the area along the banks of the Shweli River (Nam Mao). Chinese Shan language is also known as (Tai) Mao, referring to the old Shan State of Mong Mao.
  • Tai Khamti. The Tai Khamti an outlier group speaking the Khamti language. Traditionally they lived in the northernmost and westernmost edges of Shan-settled areas, such as Putao-O, Kachin State. Parts of the Tai Khamti were once ruled by the Mongkawng Shan.
  • Tai Man is probable descendants of mixed Bamar and Shan ancestry.
  • Tai Laing or Tai Leng, a Tai group living north of Myitkyina in the Kachin / Shan State border area.
  • Tai Ting, a group living around the confluence of the Ting and Salween rivers, just to the west of Gengma County, Yunnan, China.
  • Tai Taɯ: Taɯ means ‘under’ or ‘south.’ This group lives in southern Shan State.
  • Tai Nui, a group living to the south and east of Kengtung town.
  • Tai Phake. Related to the Tai Khamti, this group has a significant presence in Assam, India.
  • Tai Saʔ. The Tai Saʔ speak a variety of Ngochang (Achang) but are part of mainstream Shan society.
  • Tai Loi. The Tai Loi speaks a Palaungic language resembling De’ang (especially the Bulei dialect of Yunnan) and Silver Palaung. They take part in mainstream Shan society.
  • Tai Dam: Also known as the “Black Tai.”
  • Tai Don: Also known as the “White Tai.”

Tai Lanna Tribes:

The Northern Thai people or Tai Yuan self-designation khonmu(e)ang meaning “people of the (cultivated) land” or “people of our community”) are the majority population of eight provinces in northern Thailand, principally in the area of the former kingdom of Lanna. They belong to the group of Tai peoples and are closely related to Tai Lü and Tai Khün with regards to common culture, language and history. There are approximately 6 million Tai Yuan. Most of them live in Northern Thailand, with a small minority 29,442 (2005 census) living across the border in Bokeo and Sainyabuli Provinces of Laos. Their language is called Northern Thai, Lanna, or Kham Mueang.

The British colonial rulers in neighbouring Burma referred to them as “Siamese Shan”, to distinguish them from the Shan proper, whom they called “Burmese Shan”.

The people of this ethnicity refer to themselves as Khon Mueang, meaning “people of the (cultivated) land”, “people of our community” or “society” (mueang is a central term in Tai languages having a broad meaning, essential to the social structure of Tai peoples). With this name, they historically identified themselves as the inhabitants of the alluvial plains, river valleys, and plateaus of their native area, where they lived in local communities called Mueang and cultivated rice on paddy fields. This distinguished them from the indigenous peoples of the area (“hill tribes”), like the Lua’, who lived in the wooded mountains practicing slash-and-burn agriculture.

Tai Nung Tribes:

Tai Nung population in Vietnam is 1,065,000 in numbers. TheTai/ Thai Nung are a Diac people who speak one of the Central Tai languages. In China, they belong to the Zhuang minority people group; whereas, in Vietnam, they are considered an official nationality. In Chinese, Nung means “the fat ones.”

Thai-Nung people live in highland area in the northeast of Vietnam including Cao Bang, lang son provinces (most populous), and Bac Giang, Hà Giang, Thái Nguyên, lào Cai, Yên Bái, Tuyên Quang, Bac Kan provinces and Dac lac ( they migrated into Dac lac after Sino-Vietnamese war in 1979)

The Thai Nung are hardworking farmers. They primarily live in the hilly areas, where they raise rice and Indian corn. They are widely known for their traditional craft of intricate embroidery. There is currently a project among some Thai Nung women at the borders of China and Vietnam in which they are learning to grow, spin, dye, and weave their own cotton.

Tai Yai (Shan) Tribes:

The Shan are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State of Burma (Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Region, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Laos and Thailand. Though no reliable census has been taken in Burma since 1935, the Shan are estimated to number between 4-6 million.

The capital of Shan State is Taunggyi, a fifth largest city in Myanmar about 390,000 people. Other major cities include Thibaw (Hsipaw), Lashio, Kengtung and Tachileik.

The major groups of Shan people are:

  • Tai Yai or “Shan Proper”, by far the largest group, after which all Shan people are known in the Thai language.
  • Tai Lü or Tai Lue Its traditional area is located in Xishuangbanna (China) and the eastern states.
  • Tai Khuen or Tai Khün majority subgroup of the Keng Tung area. The former ruling family of Kengtung State belonged to this group.
  • Tai Nüa or Tai Neua, The ‘upper’ or ‘northern Tai’. This group lives north of the Shweli River, mostly in the area of Dehong, China.

Other Tai Shan groups: There are various ethnic groups designated as Tai throughout Shan State and Kachin State. Some of these groups, in fact, speak Tibeto-Burman and Mon-Khmer languages, although they are assimilated into Shan society.

  • Tai Ahom: The Tai Ahom people live in India’s northeastern state of Assam where tradition says that they ruled for almost 600 years (1228-1826).
  • Tai Mao, living in the area along the banks of the Shweli River (Nam Mao). Chinese Shan language is also known as (Tai) Mao, referring to the old Shan State of Mong Mao.
  • Tai Khamti. The Tai Khamti an outlier group speaking the Khamti language. Traditionally they lived in the northernmost and westernmost edges of Shan-settled areas, such as Putao-O, Kachin State. Parts of the Tai Khamti were once ruled by the Mongkawng Shan.
  • Tai Man, probable descendants of mixed Bamar and Shan ancestry.
  • Tai Laing or Tai Leng, a Tai group living north of Myitkyina in the Kachin/Shan State border area.
  • Tai Ting, a group living around the confluence of the Ting and Salween rivers, just to the west of Gengma County, Yunnan, China.
  • Tai Taɯ: Taɯ means ‘under’ or ‘south.’ This group lives in southern Shan State.
  • Tai Nui, a group living to the south and east of Kengtung town.
  • Tai Phake. Related to the Tai Khamti, this group has a significant presence in Assam, India.
  • Tai Saʔ. The Tai Saʔ speak a variety of Ngochang (Achang) but are part of mainstream Shan society.
  • Tai Loi. The Tai Loi speak a Palaungic language resembling De’ang (especially the Bulei dialect of Yunnan) and Silver Palaung. They take part in mainstream Shan society.
  • Tai Dam: Also known as the “Black Tai.”
  • Tai Don: Also known as the “White Tai.”

 

Tai Zhuang Tribes:

The Zhuang are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. Some also live in the Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou and Hunan provinces. They form one of the 55 minority ethnic groups officially recognized by the People’s Republic of China. Their population, estimated at 18 million people, puts them second only to the Han Chinese and makes the Zhuang the largest minority in China.

The Zhuang are of Tai origin. The Rao (Zhuang, Tai) peoples developed a unique irrigation system which was useful for growing rice. Long struggles with China to avoid destruction (as they were thought as “barbarians” by the Han) led the Tais around 1100 AD to migrate south from Southern China to create the Lao, Thai and Shan peoples of Indo-china, and even as far away as Assam, India.

Hmong Tribes:

The Hmongs are an ethnic group from the mountainous regions of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. Hmong are also one of the sub-groups of the Miao ethnicity in southern China. Hmong groups began a gradual southward migration in the 18th century due to political unrest and to find more arable land.

During the first and second Indo-china Wars, France and the United States recruited thousands of Hmong people in Laos to fight against forces from north and south Vietnam and communist Pathet Lao insurgents, known as the Secret War, during the Vietnam War and the Laotian Civil War. Hundreds of thousands of Hmong refugees fled to Thailand seeking political asylum. Thousands of these refugees have resettled in Western countries since the late 1970s, mostly the United States, but also in Australia, France, French Guiana, Canada, and South America. Others have returned to Laos under United Nations-sponsored repatriation programs.

In Laos

The Hmong groups in Laos, from the 18th century to the present day, are known as Black Hmong, Striped Hmong, White Hmong, and Green Mong. In other places in Asia, the groups are also known as Black Hmong, Striped Hmong, Hmong Shi, Hmong Pe, Hmong Pua, and Hmong Xau, Hmong Xanh (Green Hmong), Hmong Do (Red Hmong), Na Mieo and various other sub-groups. These include the Flower Hmong or the Variegated Hmong (Hmong Lenh or Hmong Hoa), so named because of the bright colorful embroidery, literally called “flower cloth”.

In Thailand

Hmong living in the mountains of the Phi Pan Nam Range inThailand. Many Hmong people migrated from Laos to Thailand following the victory of the Pathet Lao in the late 1970s. While some ended up in refugee camps, others settled in mountainous areas becoming one of the ethnic groups in Thailand referred to as hill tribes in that country.

In Vietnam

Vietnamese Hmong women continuing to wear ‘traditional’ clothing tend to source much of their clothing as ‘ready to wear’ cotton (as opposed to traditional hemp) from markets though some add embroidery as a personal touch. In SaPa, now with a ‘standardised’ clothing look, Black Hmong sub-groups have differentiated themselves by adopting different headwear; those with a large comb embedded in their long hair (but without a hat) call themselves Tao, those with a pillbox hat name themselves Giay, and those with a checked headscarf are Yao. For many, such as Flower Hmong, the heavily beaded skirts and jackets are manufactured in China.

In China

Since 1949, Miao has been an official term for one of the 55 official minority groups recognized by the government of the People’s Republic of China. The Miao live mainly in southern China, in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hubei, and elsewhere in China. According to the 2000 censuses, the number of ‘Miao’ in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. The Miao nationality includes Hmong people as well as other culturally and linguistically related ethnic groups who do not call themselves Hmong. These include the Hmu, Kho (Qho) Xiong, and A Hmao. The White Miao (Bai Miao) and Green Miao (Qing Miao) are Hmong groups. Linguistic evidence, however, places Hmong and Mong people in the same regions of southern China that they inhabit today for at least the past 2,000 years. By the mid-18th century, classifications become specific enough that it is easier to identify references to Hmong and Mong people.

Amis/Ami Tribes

The Amis (Ami or Pangcah) are indigenous people of Taiwan. They speak Amis, an Austronesian language, and are one of the sixteen officially recognized peoples of Taiwanese aborigines. The traditional territory of the Amis includes the long, narrow valley between the Central Mountains and the Coastal Mountains (Huatung Valley), the Pacific coastal plain eastern to the Coastal Mountains and the Hengchun Peninsula.

In 2014, the Amis numbered 200,604. This was approximately 37.1% of Taiwan’s total indigenous population, making them the largest tribal group. The Amis are primarily fishermen due to their coastal location. They are traditionally matrilineal. Traditional Amis villages were relatively large for indigenous groups, typically between 500 and 1,000. In today’s Taiwan, the Amis also comprises the majority of “urban aboriginals” and have developed many “urban tribes” all around the island. In recent decades, Amis have also married exogamously to Han as well as other indigenous.

According to Taiwanese Aboriginal History: the Amis are classified into five groups:

1). Northern group (located on the Chihlai/Hualien Plain)

2). Middle group (located west to the Coastal Mountains)

3). Coastal group (located east to the Coastal Mountains)

4). Falangaw group (located Chenggong and the Taitung Plain)

5). Hengchun group (located on the Hengchun Peninsula)

Note that such classification, however widely accepted, is merely based on the geographical distribution and tribal migration. It does not match the observed differences in culture, language, and physiques.

Mein Tribe:

Iu Mien originated from China to Vietnam, migrated to Laos, Thailand, and then to the United States. The Iu Mien scriptures and stories were told that Yao people were from a place called “Qianjiadong”. “Qianjiadong” is the homeland of the Yao or Iu Mien people. Yao people, from whom Iu Mien Americans descend, arrived in Laos from Southern China during the late 1600s to 1800s.

Tao/Yami Tribe:

The Yami people, also known as the Tao people, are Taiwanese aboriginal peoples native to the tiny outlying Orchid Island of Taiwan. These indigenous peoples have been more commonly recognized as the Yami people, following a Japanese anthropologist’s coining of the name. However, as a collective, these Orchid Island inhabitants typically prefer Tao people as their group identifier. They are part of the Austronesian family and designated members of the Taiwanese aborigines. Despite being linked to both Taiwan and the Philippines indigenous populations, the Tao people remain unique in their customs and cultural practices. They made a home of Orchid Island approximately 800 years ago.

Lastly, the Manasseh people are defined based on God’s revelation to Nu Parchi and Nu Mawi, Rev Chomlhunand and Evangelist Hnamtinkhum, the main anointed servants of God.

Disclaimer: The magazine Hills Today Kuki Country Maptakes no responsibility for the content of the text.

 

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